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Abenaki Indians
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Indian Tribe History

Most of the tribes listed on this page do not have a connection to a larger tribe.  We list them here so you can find some information on their history. For a complete listing of our 700 plus tribes visit Indian History page

Tachi. One of the larger tribes of the Yokuts (Mariposas) family, living on the plains north of Tulare lake, south central California. They held the country west of the Coast range. Powers puts them on Kings river, near Kingston. According to Alexander Taylor, members of this tribe were brought to San Antonio and Dolores (San Francisco) missions as neophytes. Tatché or Telamé is mentioned by Shea (preface to Arroyo de la Cuesta's Vocab. of San Antonio mission) as the name of the tribe speaking the San Antonio language, a Salinan dialect. These Tatché and Telamé, however, are the Tachi and Telalnni who had been taken to the mission, and Taylor may be correct in giving Sextapay as the name of the tribe, or more correctly village site, originally at San Antonio. As is the case with all the Yokuts tribes, only a fragment of the former number remains; but though reduced to a few dozen survivors, the Tachi are today among the half-dozen most numerous tribes left of the original forty or more comprising the Yokuts stock. Most of the survivors occupy a settlement near Lemoore, Kings County, California.

Taltushtuntude. An Athapascan tribe or band that formerly lived on Galice Creek, Oregon.  They were scattered in the same country as the Takelma, whom they had probably overrun.  In 1856 they were removed to Siletz Reservation, where 18 survived in 1877.

Tenino. A Shahaptian tribe formerly occupying the valley of Des Chutes River, Oregon.  The Tenino dialect was spoken on both sides of the Columbia from The Dalles to the mouth of the Umatilla.  In 1855 they joined in the Wasco treaty and were placed on Warm Springs Reservation, since which time they have usually been called Warm Springs Indians, a term embracing a number of tribes of other stocks which were included in the treaty.  The present number of Tenino is unknown, but it is probably not more than 30.

Tillamook (Chinook; 'people of Nekelim,' or Nehalem.  Boas). A large and prominent Salish tribe on Tillamook Bay and the rivers flowing into in, in north west Oregon.  According to Boas the culture of the Tillamook seems to have differed considerably form that of the north coast Salish, and has evidently been influenced by the culture of the tribes of North California.  According to Lewis and Clark they occupied 8 villages of which these explorers name 5; Chishuck, Chucktin, Kilerhurst, Kilherner and Towerquotton.  The same authorities place the Tillamook population at 2,200. In the reports of the Wilkes Exploring Expedition (1845) their number is given as 400, and by Lane in 1849 as 200.

Twana. A Salish division living along both sides of Hoods canal, west Washington.  The name is said to signify 'a portage,' the portage referred to being that between the head of Hoods canal and the headwaters of Puget Sound.  According to Eells there are three bands, the Colcine, Skokomish and Tulalip.  From the name of one of the bands all of them are sometimes called Skokomish.  Population, about 265 in 1853. They are probably the Skokomish of the Indian Office reports, numbering 203 in 1909.

Tulalip. One of three divisions of the Twana, a Salish tribe on the west side of Hood canal, Washington.  This branch according to Eells, lives on a small stream, near the head of the canal, called Dulaylip.  The name has also been given to a reservation on the west side of Puget Sound.

Tyigh. A Shahaptian tribe speaking the Tenino language and formerly occupying the country about Tygh and White rivers in Wasco County, Oregon.  They took part in the Wasco treaty of 1855 and are now on the Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon.  Their number is not reported, as they are classed under the indiscriminate term "Warm Springs Indians," but in 1854 they were said to number 500, and in 1859, 450.

Umatilla. A Shahaptian tribe formerly lining on Umatilla Reservation and the adjacent banks of the Columbia in Oregon.  They were included under the Walla Walla by Lewis and Clark in 1805, though their language is distinct. In 1855 they joined in a treaty with the United States and settled on the Umatilla Reservation in eastern Oregon.  They are said to number 250, but this figure is doubtful, owing to a mixture of tribes on the reservation.

Umpqua. An Athapascan tribe formerly settled on upper Umpqua river, Oregon, east of the Katish.  Hale (Ethnol. and Philol., 204, 1846) said they were supposed to number not more than 400, having been greatly reduced by disease.  They lived in houses of boards and mats and derived their sustenance mainly form the river.  In 1902 there were 84 on Grande Ronde Reservation, Oregon.  Their chief village was Hewut.  A part of them, the Nahankhuotana, lived along Cow Creek.  All the Athapascan tribes of south Oregon were once considered divisions of the Umpqua.  Parker (Jour., 262, 1842) named as divisions the unidentified Palakahy, the uncertain Skoton and Chasta, and the Chilula and Kwatami.

Wallawalla ('little river'). A Shahaptian tribe formerly living on lower Walla Walla river and along the east bank of the Columbia from Snake river nearly to the Umatilla in Washington and Oregon. While a distinct dialect, their language is closely related to the Nez Percé. Their number was estimated by Lewis and Clark as 1,600 in 1805, but it is certain this figure included other bands now recognized as independent. By treaty of 1855 they were removed to the Umatilla Reservation in Oregon, where they are now (1910) said to number 461, but are much mixed with Nez Percé, Umatilla, and Cayuse. In the Wasco treaty of 1855, by which the Warm Springs Reservation was established, a number of Shahaptian tribes or bands are mentioned as divisions of the Walla Walla which had no real connection with that tribe.

Wenatchi (Yakima; winätshi, 'river issuing from a canyon,' referring to Wenatchee river). A Salish division, probably a band of the Pisquows, formerly on Wenatchee river, a tributary of the Columbia in Washington.  In 1850 there were said to have been 50 on Yakima Reservation, but 66 were enumerated in the Report on Indian Affairs for 1910 as under the Colville agency.  It is uncertain whether these bodies belonged to one original band.

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