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Canadian Indian Tribe History

Nahane ('people of the west.). An Athapascan division occupying the region of British Columbia and Yukon Territory between the Coast range and the Rocky mountains, from the north border of the Sekani, about 57° north, to that of the Kutchin tribes, about 65° north. It comprises the Tahltan and Takutine tribes forming the Taliltan division, the Titshotina and Etagottine tribes forming the Kaska division, and the Esbataottine and Abbatotine (considered by Petitot to be the same tribe), Sazeutina, Ettchaottine, Etagottine, Kraylongottine, Klokegottine, and perhaps Lakuyip and Tsetsant. They correspond with Petitot's Montagnard group, except that he included also the Sekani. The language of the Nahane however constitutes a dialect by itself, entirely distinct from Sekani , Carrier, or Kutchin. The western divisions have been powerfully influenced by their Tlingit neighbors of Wrangell, and have adopted their clan organization with maternal descent, the potlatch customs of the coast tribes, and many words and expressions of their language. The two principal social divisions or phratries are called Raven and Wolf, and the fact that Sazeutina and Titshotina seem to signify 'Bear people' and 'Grouse people' respectively, leads Morice to suspect that these groups are really phratries or clans. The eastern Nahane have a loose paternal organization like the Sekani and other Athapascan tribes farther east. According to Morice the Nahane have suffered very heavily as a result of white contact. He estimates the entire population at about 1,000.

Nanaimo (contraction of Snanaímux). A Salish tribe, speaking the Cowichan dialect, living about Nanaimo Harbor, on the east coast of Vancouver Island and on Nanaimo Lake, British Columbia.  Population 161 in 1906. Their gentes are Anuenes, Koltsiowotl, Ksalokul, Tewethen, and Yesheken.

Nootka. A nine originally applied to the Mooachaht of Nootka sound, west coast of Vancouver island., and to their principal town, Yuquot, but subsequently extended to all the tribes speaking a Similar language. These extend from C. Cook oil the north to beyond Port San Juan, and include the Makah of C. Flattery, Wash. Sometimes the term has been used as to exclude the last named tribe. The Nootka form one branch of the great Wakashan family and their relationship to the second or Kwakiutl branch is apparent only on close examination. In l906 there were 435 Makah and 2,159 Vancouver island. Nootka total. 2,594. They are decreasing slowly but steadily, the reduction in population of the Nootka of Vancouver Island alond having exceeded 250 between 1901 and 1906.
     The Nootka tribes are: Ahousaht, Chaicclesaht, Clayoquot, Cooptee, Ehatisaht, Ekoolthaht, Hachaath (extinct), Hesquiat, Kelsemaht, Klahosaht (probably extinct), Kwoneatshatka (?), Kyuquot, Makah, Manosaht, Mooachaht, Muchalat, Nitinat, Nuchatlitz, Oiaht, Opitchesaht, Pachenaht, Seshart, Toquart, Uchucklesit, and Ucluelet.

Nakotchokutchin. A Kutchin tribe dwelling on the lower Mackenzie river, north of the Kawchodinneh, in lat. 68° north, lon. 133° west Their hunting grounds are east of the Mackenzie as far as Anderson river, and their chief game is the caribou. In former days they waged intermittent warfare against the Eskimo of Mackenzie river, with whom, however, they have always traded. Their men numbered 50 in 1866.

Atsina (Blackfoot: ǎt-se'na, said to mean 'gut people.' Cf. Aä/ni-nĕna, under Arapaho). A detached branch of the Arapaho, at one time associated with the Blackfeet, but now with the Assiniboin under Ft. Belknap agency, Montana, where in 1904 they numbered 535, steadily decreasing.  They called themselves Aä'ninĕna, said to mean 'white clay people,' but are known to the other Arapaho as Hitúnĕna, 'beggars, or spongers,' whence the tribal sign, commonly but incorrectly rendered 'belly people' or 'big bellies,' the Gros Ventres of the French Canadian and now their popular name.  The Atsina are not prominent in history and in most respects are regarded by the Arapaho proper as inferior to them.  They have been constantly confused with the Hidatsa or Gros Ventres of the Missouri.

Bellabella (an Indian corruption of Milbank taken back into English). The popular mame of an important Kwakiutl tribe living on Milbank sound., British Cololumbia. Their septs or subtribes are Kokaitk, Oetlitk, and Oealitk. The following clans are given:
Wikoktenok (Eagle),
Koetenok (Raven),
Halhaiktenole (Killerwhale).
     Pop. 330 in 1901.
     The language spoken by this tribe and shared also by the Kitamat, Kitlope, China Hat, and Wikeno Indians is a peculiar dialect of Kwakiutl, called Heiltsuk from the native name of the Bellabella. These tribes resemble each other furthermore in having a system of clans with descent through the, mother, derived probably , from their northern neighbors, while the Bellacoola and Kwakiutl to the south have paternal descent. Anciently the Bellabella here very warlike, a character largely attributable to the fact that they wore flanked on one side
by the Tsimshian of Kittizoo and on the other by the Bellacoola, while war parties of Haida from the Queen Charlotte islands were constantly raiding their coasts. For this reason, perhaps, the peculiar secret societies of the north west coast, the most important of which evidently had their origin in war customs, first arose among them. When voyagers first began frequenting the north Pacific coast, Milbank island., which offers one of the few good openings into the inner ship channel to Alaska, was often visited, and its inhabitants were therefore among the first to be modified by European contact. Together with the other Heiltsuk tribes they have now been Christianized by Protestant missionaries, and most of their ancient culture and ritual have been abandoned.

Cowichan. A group of Salish tribes speaking a single dialect and occupying the south east Coast of Vancouver island between Nonoos bay and Sanitch inlet, and the valley of lower Fraser river nearly to Spuzzum, British Columbia. The various bands and tribes belonging to this group aggregated 2,991 in 1902. The following list of Cowichan tribes is based on information obtained front Boas:
On Vancouver island. Clemclemalats, Comiakin, Hellelt, Kenipsins, Kilpanlus, Koksilah, Kuleets, Lilmalche, Malakut, Nanaimo, Penelakut, Quamichan, Siccameen, Snonowas, Somenos, Tateke, and Yekolaos.
On lower Fraser river. Chehalis, Chilliwack, Coquitlain, Ewawoos, Katsey, Kelatt, Kwantlin, Matsqui, Musqueam, Nicomen, Ohamil, Pilalt, Popkum, Scowlitz, Siyita, Sewathen, Snonkweametl, Skawawalooks, Squawtits. Sumass, Tait, Tsakuam, and Tsenes.

Etchaottine. An Etchareottine division living west and north west of Great Slave lake between Liard river and the divide, along Black, Beaver, and Willow Reservation, British America. The Bistchonigottine and Krayiragottine are two of the divisions.

Kitksan ('people of Seena [Ksian] river') One of the three dialectic divisions of the Chimmesyan stock, affiliated more closely with the Naska than with the Tsimshian proper.  The people speaking the dialect live along the upper waters of Skeena river, British Columbia.  Dorsey enumerates the following towns; Kauldaw, Kishgagass, Kishpiyeoux, Kitanmaiksh, Kitwingach, Kitwinskole, and Kitzegukla.  To these must be added the modern mission town of Meamskinisht.  A division is known as the Glen-Vowell Band.  Population 1,120 in 1904.

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